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Саврей В.Я. - Каппадокийская школа в истории христианской мысли - 2012. Lomonosov moscowstate universitythe faculty of philosophy

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Being more faithful to the rules of symbolic exegesis, St Gre­
gory of Nyssa wrote an inimitable commentary on
The Song of Songs that he, in accord with Origen, considers as a mystic poem. St Gre­
gory also shared his idea of
but only as a mere pos­
sibility without any connection whatsoever with the cyclical world view which was alien to all the representatives of the Cappadocian school.
Along with the Bible, the Cappadocian Fathers regarded the oral Tradition highly, as containing in itself certain 'mysteries' (Bas.
29, 71). The third criterion of Truth of utmost importance, along with the Holy Writ and Tradition, is catholicity. Gradual rec­
ognising the sense in the disclosure of all the powers of the Church catholic personality was considered to be an important principle of cognition: thus, for instance, the Old Testament, according to
St Gregory the Theologian, had been such a light that was 'adequate for the powers of recipients... hiding the truth and mystery of the great Light' (Or. 40). The attitude of the Cappadocian school rep­
resentatives towards lay culture is highly complex. In his famous
Instruction for Youths on How to Use Works by Pagan Writers
St Basil the Great spoke in support of Christians using Ancient Philosophy.
He claimed that the unity of school doctrines serves to affirm Chris­
tianity, whereas contradictions among them serve to overthrow them
1). St Gregory of Nyssa urged Christians 'to amass the riches of pagan culture/ including Ethics, Physics, Geom­
etry, Astronomy, and Dialectic
(Vita Mos.
360). It was suggested to

rely upon 'general notions'
evvoiai), i.e., to a certain extent, transcendental ideas which all the people can understand by intui­
tion. At the same time Philosophy should not take the place of faith,
'simple and without sophisms' (Bas.
St Basil the Great divided all the 'propositions' (Ьоуцата) ac­
cepted by reason into 'moral' (f)0iKoug), 'physical' (фиспкоид), and 'mystical' or 'contemplative'

i o
t t i k o u
taken together, they become the soul's garment, the fabric of which is borrowed from different sources
44, 10). Moral laws were considered by the Cappadocians as a heritage of the whole mankind, but their fulfilment was admittedly possible only after the advent of Grace.
St Basil presents cognition of nature in his
(that is, [a
Work] of Six Days) as a field of competing natural philosophical hypotheses that can become clear in terms of the world view only through mystical dogmata. Finally, the latter ones are dimly seen by philosophic reason, but they are given
per se
only in Orthodox
Theology. The place of Philosophy in the structure of cognition of the Cappadocian school can be defined as auxiliary.
The Cappadocian school doctrine of the Trinity that later became its chief achievement was based on a biblical foundation with the employment of philosophic terminology. Being increasingly discon­
tent with the Neo-Platonist emanationism, the Cappadocians chose the way of an exact distinction of the terms 'essence' (oucria) and
'hypostasis' (йтюсгтасгьд), which St Athanasius had not yet used.
They were charged with tritheism, but the Neo-Nicene doctrine prevailed at the Second Oecumenical Council in Constantinople
(381 AD). Having deepened the generally accepted notion of 'per­
son' (
) with the idea of 'hypostasis', the great Cappado­
cians arrived at the dialectical disclosure of the dogma of the Trinity
'without division and without confusion,' reconciling contradictory views of triunity in the unfathomable nature of the Godhead that is beyond the grasp of the mind. The human thought needs to con­
stantly move in order to comprehend this object of faith: 'Hardly have I thought about the One when I light up with the Three; hardly have I divided the Three when I am exalted to the One' (Greg. Naz.
Or at.
40, 41). The dialectic doctrine of the Trinity has become a tri­
umph of philosophical and theological thinking that has overcome the static nature of pagan ideas of the Absolute. The absolute sub­

ject and object are not just confused, which would mean uncon­
sciousness of the One, but their relations are described as 'sameness in otherness and otherness in sameness'
( t c u j t o v
£T£Q O Tr)Ti
£T£qov £V таит6тг|т1). Here has fully developed the Christian idea of God's autonomy from the world: having in Himself 'complete otherness without confusion' (Greg. Naz. С.
1, 22), God does not need the world as His object and makes it only due to His good­
God's autonomy is closely connected with human freedom, the latter always being doubtful in the ancient world view, including
Origen's system. In his treatise
Making of Man
, an essential anthropological work in Patristics, St Gregory of Nyssa points out that the human
(mind) is mysteriously in the image of God's mind. That means that the very first principles of freedom are firmly anchored in the infinity of God-likeness; in this connection their realisation leads towards eternal and non-finite consequences.
Life is a school where all the human dispositions are on probation, finding here their full disclosure and accomplishment. Having been created in the image of God, the person has also to acquire
His likeness which is in the good use of the gift of being in order
'to imitate the heavenly well-being on earth' (Bas.
21). The congruity of man with God allowed the Cappadocians to converge theological truths with philosophic ideas, at the centre of which was Anthropology. Thus, according to St Gregory, God's image in man in the proper sense of the word is the
(mind) that is simple and, 'revealing itself in each sense, can grasp things.' The mind, however, is made in the image of Logos. If the Logos were different from God, the human mind either would not be simple or rather would not be similar to God. But since these two conditions are observed, hence the Son is the perfect image of the Father (Greg.
Horn. op.
This perception of the whole world as 'a school and place of the education of the human souls' (Bas.
I) had a profound impact on the unique features of the Cappadocian school as an informal in­
stitute of the patristic epoch. Around it, creative thought was in full swing, its chief aim was to let nothing in Church doctrine be blurred and, by so doing, to enhance the unity of Christendom as much as possible. The famous maxim of St Gregory the Theologian—'we are

not claiming victory, but our brethren's return, the separation with whom rends our hearts apart'—has entered a great number of po­
lemical works as an example of the Orthodox approach towards doctrinal controversies. The Cappadocians turned out to be found­
ers of the mature Byzantine Theology which carried out a synthesis of the Alexandrian and Antiochene principles and provided a fur­
ther translation of ancient cultural achievements in the multitude of forms of Christian civilisation.
Ключевые слова
Каппадокийская школа, Александрийская школа, Ново­
александрийская школа, Антиохийская школа, «Новони- кейское движение, Вселенская Церковь, Вселенские Соборы, Библия, Священное Писание, Священное Предание, Евангелие, Новый Завет, христианская Античность, «Фи­
локалия» Добротолюбие, философия, богословие, герменевтика, экзегетика, герменевтический метод, притча, патристика, патрология, догматика, триадология, антропология, христология, эсхатология, аскетика, диалектика, доксография, гомилия, иконопочитание, ипостась, космология, космогония, мистерия, мистика, риторика, гносеология, софистика, сущность, эллинизм, гностицизм, язычество, ересь, арианство, монашество, Православие, Платон, Аристотель, Филон Александрийский, Климент Александрийский, Ориген Александрийский, Плотин, апостол Павел, святитель Иоанн Златоуст, золотой век патристики, каппадокийский философско-богослов- ский синтез, великие каппадокийцы: святитель Василий Великий, святитель Григорий Богослов, святитель Григорий
Нисский; святитель Афанасий Великий, святитель Кирилл Александрийский

Key words
The Cappadocian School, the Alexandrian School, the New
Alexandrian School, the Antiochene School, 'the New Nicene
Movement', the Oecumenical Church, the Oecumenical Councils, the Bible, the Holy Scripture, the Holy Tradition, Gospel, the
New Testament, Christian Antiquity,
(Love for Good),
Philosophy, Theology, Hermeneutics, Exegetics, hermeneutical method, parable, Patristics, Patrology, Dogmatic Theology,
Triadology, Anthropology, Christology, Eschatology, Ascetics, dialectics, Doxography, homily, icon worship, hypostasis, cosmology, cosmogony, mystery, mystics, Rhetoric, Gnoseology,
Sophistry, essence, Hellenism, Gnosticism, paganism, heresy,
Arianism, monasticism, Christian Orthodoxy, Plato, Aristotle,
Philo of Alexandria, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria,
Plotinus, Apostle Paul, St John Chrysostom, 'the Golden Age' of Patristics, the Cappadocian philosophical and theological synthesis, the great Cappadocian Fathers: St Basil the Great,
St Gregory the Theologian, St Gregory of Nyssa; St Athanasius the Great, St Cyril of Alexandria.
Творческая биография
Валерий Яковлевич Саврей
(р. 1956) — доктор философских наук, профессор, лауреат Макариевской премии. Специалист в области истории зарубежной философии, истории культуры, философии религии и богословия Автор научных трудов, посвященных философской и библейской герменевтике, экзегетике, теологии и восточной патристике, самым значительным из которых является исследование по истории философии и богословия в александрийской культуре. Основатель первой в России кафедры истории и теории мировой культуры философского факультета и Института мировой культуры МГУ.
Автор фундаментальной научной монографии Александрийская школа в истории философско-богословской мысли. Удостоен Макариевской премии РАН за выдающийся вклад в развитие отечественной исторической науки».
В.Я. Саврей является профессором кафедры философии религии и религиоведения философского факультета МГУ имени МВ. Ломоносова и профессором кафедры библеисти- ки Московской Духовной Академии

Curriculum Vitae
Valery Yakovlevich Savrey
(b. 1956), PhD, Professor, St Macarius Prize Winner, is at pres­
ent a specialist in the field of History of Foreign Philosophy, His­
tory of Culture, Philosophy of Religion, and Theology.
The scholar's research interests include Biblical Studies, Philo­
sophical Hermeneutics, Exegesis, Theology, and Eastern Patristics.
The most important of these works is his research into the History of Philosophy and Theology in the Alexandrian culture.
He is a founder of the first Russian Department of History and
Theory of the World Culture at the Faculty of Philosophy and the
Institute of the World Culture at Moscow University.
He is an author of the fundamental scientific monograph,
Alexandrian School in the History of Philosophical and Theological
He has won the St Macarius Prize of the Russian Acad­
emy of Sciences for his 'outstanding contribution in the develop­
ment of national history.'
Mr V. Savrey is Professor at the Department of Philosophy of Religion and Religious Studies at the Faculty of Philosophy at Moscow University, Professor of the Department of Biblical
Studies at the Theological Academy of Moscow.
Учебное издание
Н.И. Колотовкин
И.Е. Новикова
Е.А. Босина
Н.Н. Аникушин
Художественный редактор
ГД . Колоскова
Технический редактор. С. Кондрашова
И.В. Бабаева
Компьютерная верстка
А.В. Тарасюк
ISBN 978-5-211-05649-7
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