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Аракин - 2 Учебник английского языка. Владимира Дмитриевича Аракина одного из замечательных лингвистов России предисловие настоящая книга


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TOPIC: CITY


TEXT A. SOME MORE GLIMPSES OF LONDON

London is one of the biggest and most interesting cities in the world.

Traditionally it is divided into the West End and the East End. The West End is famous for its beautiful avenues lined with plane trees, big stores, rich mansions, expensive restaurants, hotels, theatres and night clubs. The East End used to be a poor area filled with warehouses, factories, slums and miserable houses. Quite a lot of people lived from hand to mouth here. For the recent years this area including Dockland has turned into a new housing development.

The heart of London is the City — its commercial and business centre. Here is situated the Tower of London that comes first among the historic buildings of the city. If you want to get some glimpses of London it's just from here that you had better start sightseeing.

The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal residence and a prison. Now it is a museum of armour and also the place where the Crown Jewels are kept. In present days, just as many centuries ago, the Ceremony of the Keys takes place at its gates. Every night when the guard is changed at each gate there is the cry: "Haiti Who goes there?" Then the guard replies: "The Keys." "Whose Keys?" "Queen Elizabeth's Keys!" "Pass, Queen Elizabeth's Keys! All's well." And so the Tower of London is safely closed for the night.

A twenty minutes' walk from the Tower will take you to another historic building — St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built by a famous English architect, Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). St. Paul's Cathedral with its huge dome and rows of columns is considered to be a fine specimen of Renaissance architecture. In one of its towers hangs one of the largest bells in the world, Great Paul, weighing about 17.5 tons. Wellington,29 Nelson30 and other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral.

Not far away, in Westminster, where most of the Government buildings are situated, is Westminster Abbey. Many English sovereigns, outstanding statesmen, painters and poets (Newton, Darwin, and Tennyson among them) are buried here.

Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. Its two graceful towers stand high above the city. The higher of the two contains the largest clock in the country and the famous bell Big Ben that strikes every quarter of the hour.

If now we walk along Whitehall, we shall soon come to Trafalgar Square. It was so named in memory of the victory in the battle of Trafalgar, where on October 21, 1805 the English fleet under Nelson's command defeated the combined fleet of France and Spain. The victory was won at the cost of Nelson's life. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands Nelson's monument — a tall column with the figure of Nelson at its top. The column is guarded by four bronze lions.

The fine building facing the square is the National Gallery and adjoining it (but just round the corner) is the Portrait Gallery.

Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest Museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of different things (ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc.). The British Museum is famous for its library — one of the richest in the world.31 In its large circular reading room Marx, Engels and later Lenin used to work.

And now, even if you have almost no time left for further sightseeing, you cannot leave the city without visiting Hyde Park or "the Park" as Londoners call it. When you are walking along its shady avenues, sitting on the grass, admiring its beautiful flower-beds or watching swans and ducks floating on the ponds, it seems almost unbelievable that all around there is a large city with its heavy traffic.

TEXT B. SIGHTSEEING

— Is it possible to see anything of London in one or two days?

— Well, yes, but, of course, not half enough.

— What do you think I ought to see first?

— Well, if you are interested in churches and historic places you should go to Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, St. Paul's and the Tower. Do you like art galleries?

— Rather!

— Then why not go to the National Gallery and the Tate?

— I'm told one ought to see the British Museum. Do you think I shall have time for that?

— Well, you might, but if I were you, I should leave that for some other day. You could spend a whole day there. It's much too big to be seen in an hour or so.

— I suppose it is. What about going to the Zoo?

— That's not a bad idea. You could spend a couple of hours there comfortably, or even a whole afternoon, watching the wild animals, birds and reptiles. You could have tea there too.

— I'll do that, then. How do I get there?

— Let me see. I think your best way from here is to walk across Regent's park.

— Is it much of a walk?

— Oh, no, a quarter of an hour or so, but, if you are in a hurry, why not take a taxi?

— I think I will. Ah, here's one coming. Taxi! The Zoo, please.

(From "The Linguaphone English Course")

TEXT С. RED SQUARE

Red Square has witnessed many important events in the life of Russian people. Though time has changed the face of Red Square it' has remained the main square and the heart of the city.

Visitors from home and abroad stream here to enjoy the beauty of the historic buildings and monuments of which the Kremlin comes first. The Kremlin represents centuries of Russian history and one is usually struck by the austere and powerful appearance of its walls and towers.

Like the Tower of London the Kremlin was used as a fortress and a sovereign's residence. Now it houses the President's office and a number of museums including the Armory Chamber and the Diamond Fund.

In the centre of the square by the Kremlin wall is the Lenin Mausoleum, erected in 1930 by A. Shchusev. The architect interpreted the traditions of the pyramids in a modem way and gave the monument a laconic architectural form which was popular in the twenties. Behind the Mausoleum there is a necropolis of some outstanding statesmen and political leaders.

On the southern side of Red Square is St. Basil's Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny), a masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture. It was built in 1555 — 61 in memory of the victory over Kazan (1552). The monument standing in front of the Cathedral tells us of the people's victory over the Polish invaders in 1612. The inscription on the monument reads: "To Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky from a grateful Russia". The monument is the work of I. Martos (1752—1835). Not far from the Cathedral is what is called the Lobnoye Mesto, a platform of white stone more than 400 years old. The tsar's edicts were proclaimed there. Public executions were carried out on a wooden scaffold erected nearby. To the right of the Cathedral on the territory of the Kremlin we can see a tall tower, more like a column, over 80 metres high. It is the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great built in the 15th century. There are twenty-two large bells and over thirty small ones in it. For centuries the eastern side of Red Square had been associated with trading. The first stone shops were built here in the 16th century. Today on their site stands the State Department Store, better known as GUM.

If we walk up from St. Basil's to the opposite end of the square we face a red brick building. This is the History Museum. In the west Red Square is adjoining the Kremlin. Just on the other side of the Kremlin wall we can see the building of the former Senate, an outstanding architectural monument built by Matvei Kasakov (1738—1813), now the seat of the Administration of the President. A number of watch-towers protect the Kremlin bridges. The white Kutafya Tower is the best survivor of all of them. The tallest one is the Trinity Tower (80 m high). But the Spasskaya Tower with the Kremlin clock has long since become one of the symbols of Moscow.

Memory Work

Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge

Earth has not anything to show more fair:

Dull would he be of soul who could pass by

A sight so touching in its majesty:

This City now doth like a garment wear

The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,

Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie

Open unto the fields, and to the sky:

All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.

Never did sun more beautifully steep

In his first splendor, valley, rock or hill;

Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!

The river glideth at bis own sweet will:

Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;

And all that mighty heart is lying still! William Wordsworth

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words

adjoin υ defeat υ jewel n architecture n dome n

mansion n armour n erect υ residence n avenue n

float υ seat n bury υ fortress n shady adj

change υ guard υ specimen n cathedral n huge adj

statesman n contain υ

Word Combinations

to live from hand to mouth to win the victory

to be lined with (trees, houses) at the cost of smb.'s life

to be found (in some place) at the top

a new housing development round the corner

to have (get, catch) a glimpse of to be famous for smth.

to have no time (money, etc.) left in present days

across the road (from some place) Why not do smth.?

to do the sights of smth. in memory of

to do the city (museums, parks, etc.) under the command

Proper Names

the Lenin Mausoleum Big Ben the East End Trafalgar Square

the Tower of London the Kremlin Julius Caesar the West End

William the Conqueror St. Basil's Cathedral Queen Elizabeth the Bell Tower

Christopher Wren of Ivan the Great Wellington

the History Museum Westminster Abbey the Spasskaya Tower

EXERCISES

I. Study Text A and explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below:


mansion, to live from hand to mouth, miserable houses, to line the streets, dome, slums, to come first, the Crown Jewels, huge, statesman, across the road, the seat (of the government), at the cost of somebody's life, to face smth., shady avenues.

II. Learn the words of the texts and a) copy and transcribe these words:


mansion, restaurant, jewel, guard, halt, column, ton, sovereign, national, float, sculpture, swan, weigh, conqueror, specimen.

b) Translate into English and mark the stresses:


отель, церемония, Возрождение, Трафальгарская площадь, рукопись, проспект, архитектор, Елизавета, сенат.

c) Form derivatives of these verbs by adding the prefix re- (meaning "do smth. again"):


Example: build — rebuild

write, tell, construct, arm, elect, produce.

III. Answer the questions:


1. How do the two parts of London differ from each other? 2. Why is it better to start sightseeing from the Tower of London? 3. Who founded the Tower and when was it rebuilt? 4. What was the Tower of London used for? 5. What is the City? 6. What does the phrase "a place of interest" mean? 7. What do you know about St. Paul's Cathedral? 8. What is Whitehall and in which part of London is it situated? 9. What does the Ceremony of the Keys consist of? 10. What do you call the building in which the Houses of Parliament are situated? It is one building, why then do we say "The Houses of Parliament"? 11. What is Big Ben? 12. What kind of museum is the British Museum? 13. What do you know about Hyde Park?

IV. Read the text and show all the places of interest mentioned there on the map:


Trafalgar Square is the natural centre of London. Could we but stand 168 feet (about 50 metres) above the traffic, beside the figure of the Admiral, we really could see all the great landmarks of London. Whitehall, which leads out of the square to the south, is the site of many Government offices including the Prime Minister's residence, Foreign Office, War Office; at the far end of Whitehall stand, beside the Thames, the Houses of Parliament with the Big Clock Tower, and Westminster Abbey; to the left Covent Garden fruit market and Covent Garden Opera House, and beyond the Bank of England; another slight turn left would enable your eye to fall on the British Museum; further left still we should see theatreland around Piccadilly Circus (it is not at all a circus but an open space of a circular form) and those expensive shopping promenades — Regent Street, Oxford Street, Bond Street; a little further, and into view would come Hyde Park in the distance, with, nearer, Buckingham Palace, and Royal Drive known as the Mall, which leads into Trafalgar Square.

V. Use Text В to practise similar conversations on Moscow.

VI. Read and retell:


A. The famous square mile of the City of London is administered as an independent unit, having its own Lord Mayor and Corporation and its own police force. It was here that the Romans built their walled town of Londinium, a few traces of which remain today, and it was here that the Medieval guilds established their headquarters. When after the Great Fire of 1666, the City was rebuilt, stone and brick replaced the many mainly wooden medieval houses and from that time the City gradually became a financial and commercial centre.

B. One of the special joys of London is the amount of space given over to parks, gardens, squares and open areas. They provide a welcome visual and physical break from the mass of buildings and the heavy traffic. Kew Gardens are famous Botanic Gardens on the banks of the Thames. The gardens and hothouses with rare flowers, trees and shrubs are well worth seeing. Within a stone's throw of Buckingham Palace are St. James's Park and Green Park. St. James's Park, the oldest in London, was created by Henry VIII and redesigned by his successors. Green Park, as its name suggests, mainly consists of lawns and trees.

(From Colourful London. Norwich, 1981)

VII. Make up short situations or dialogues, using tne following words and phrases:


1. why not..., let me see, to be found, across the road, to have no (time, money) left; 2. in present days, to live from hand to mouth; 3. under the command of, to be famous for, to defeat, to win the victory, at the cost of; 4. fortress, armour, in memory of, to contain; 5. swan, lined with trees, float, shady avenues, ancient.

VIII. Fill in prepositions:


Scotland Yard is the headquarters ... the Metropolitan Police ... London. ...most people, its name immediately brings ... mind the picture ... a detective — cool, collected, efficient, ready to track down any criminal.

Scotland Yard is situated ... the Thames Embankment close ... the Houses ... Parliament and the familiar clock tower ... Big Ben. The name "Scotland Yard" originates ... the plot ... land adjoining Whitehall Palace where, ... about the 14th century, the royalty and nobility ... Scotland stayed when visiting the English Court. The popular nickname ... the London policeman "bobby" is a tribute ... Sir Robert Peel, who introduced the police force ... 1829, and whose Christian name attached itself ... members ... the force.

IX. Review Text "Introducing London", texts A, B, Exercises IV, VI, VIII and study the map of London. Speak on the given topics:


1. London dominates British life. 2. The West End. 3. The East End. 4. The City. 5. The Tower. 6. The district of Westminster. 7. The British Parliament. 8. Whitehall and Fleet Street. 9. Trafalgar Square. 10. St. Paul's Cathedral. 11. The parks of London. 12. London museums. 13. London traffic. 14. Monuments in London.

X. Translate into English:


1. В самом центре Сити, напротив главного банка Англии, стоит статуя Веллингтона — знаменитого английского генерала и государственного деятеля XIX в. Под его командованием английские войска совместно со своими союзниками (allies) нанесли поражение армии Наполеона под Ватерлоо в 1815 г. Мост Ватерлоо, один из красивейших мостов через Темзу, был назван так в честь этой победы. 2. Мэлл (The Mall) — это широкий проспект, обсаженный деревьями, ведущий от Трафальгарской площади к Букингемскому дворцу — резиденции английских королей. Напротив дворца стоит огромный памятник со статуей Победы наверху. Этот памятник был воздвигнут в честь королевы Виктории, чье шестидесятичетырехлетнее царствование (reign) было самым продолжительным в истории (1837—1901). 3. Хайгейтское кладбище (Highgate Cemetery) известно тем, что там находится могила Карла Маркса. В 1956 году на деньги, присланные рабочими со всех концов света, там был воздвигнут памятник Карлу Марксу.

XI. Read Text С. Say what landmarks you would mention to a group of tourists standing in the middle of Red Square. Use the word combinations given below:


to witness, the heart of the city, the face of Red Square, the seat of the Administration of the President, to honour the memory, to stream to, public executions, the beating of the heart of our capital,

ХII. Act out a dialogue between a Russian tourist and a policeman. Choose the exact place (in Moscow or elsewhere) where you are having your talk and the place you want to get to. Use in your dialogue one or two phrases from each set given below:


1. Excuse me, I've lost my way ...; I'm trying to go to ...; Which is the right (best, shortest) way to ...? Please show me the way to ...; How do I get there? Am I on the right road? 2. How far is it? Is it possible to walk there? Is there a bus from here to ...? Is it much of a walk? 3. Go right to the end of the street, then turn left, go two blocks straight ahead and then turn to ... ; Straight on and the second turning to the right ...; You are going in the opposite direction. 4. What can I do for you? Now, where is it you want to go? It's a long distance off. It's a long (short) way to ...; It's quite a distance from here. 5. Be careful, the traffic keeps to the left in this country; Look out; It isn't safe to cross here; Be sure not to cross the street (square, etc.); One can never be too careful; Wait for the break in the traffic; Don't cross the street when the traffic light has changed to red.

XIII. Try your band at teaching.

1. Read the text. Discuss what you would do in the teacher's position:


Susan was absolutely impossible. Or so her teacher was convinced, for Susan did not like to read (a problem every teacher faces from time to time). But there were things that Susan did enjoy. She liked ballet. And she adored her dog Curly. "How can I," thought the teacher, "introduce Susan to pleasures of reading?"

2. Get 4-5 pictures of London (Moscow) attractions and be ready to comment on them. (See "Classroom English", Sections II, Ш, V.)

ХIV. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Из окна такси вы можете увидеть Лондон лишь мельком. Есть много других способов ознакомиться с его достопримечательностями: можно походить по городу пешком, можно отправиться в двухчасовую поездку на туристском автобусе, курсирующем по Лондону, можно посмотреть город с верхней площадки двухэтажного автобуса; кроме того, можно совершить речную поездку по Темзе или Большому каналу в Риджентс-Парк. 2. Если бы вы смогли пролететь над Москвой на вертолете (helicopter), вы бы увидели, как изменилась и выросла наша столица: длинные, обсаженные деревьями проспекты, пересекают город во всех направлениях, кварталы новых многоэтажных домов появились на окраинах города на месте старых деревянных домиков, темных от копоти и дыма. Над многочисленными стройками (building sites) столицы возвышаются огромные подъемные краны (cranes). 3. Метро — самый удобный вид городского транспорта. Сотни тысяч москвичей и приезжих ежедневно поднимаются и спускаются по его эскалаторам, восхищаются архитектурой и отделкой (decoration) чудесных подземных дворцов. 4. Памятник А. С. Пушкину, установленный на Страстной (ныне Пушкинской) площади, — один из самых любимых памятников жителей столицы. У его подножия вы всегда увидите букеты живых цветов, которые приносят сюда москвичи, чтобы почтить память любимого поэта.

XV. Act out a dialogue between a Muscovite and a Londoner on his first visit to Moscow. Imagine that you are standing in the middle of Red Square. Your companion asks you about everything be sees, gives his opinion about this and that and says what buildings, monuments, etc. remind him of London. Use the prompts of Ex. VII. p. 111.

XVI. a) Get ready to read the text aloud, b) Write a translation of the text:


Morning City

This was one of those mornings when the smoke and the Thames Valley mist decide to work a few miracles for their London, and especially for the oldest part of it, the City. The City, on these mornings, is an enchantment. There is a faintly luminous haze, now silver, now old gold, over everything. The buildings have shape and solidity but no weight; they hang in the air, like palaces out of the Arabian Nights; you could topple the dome off St. Paul's with a forefinger, push back the Mansion House, send the Monument floating into space. On these mornings, the old churches cannot be counted; there are more of them than ever. There is no less traffic than usual; the scarlet stream of buses still flows through the ancient narrow streets; the pavements are still thronged with bank messengers, office boys, policemen, clerks, typists, commissionaires, directors, secretaries, crooks, busy-bodies, idlers; but on these mornings all the buses, taxicabs, vans, lorries and all the pedestrians lose something of their ordinary solidity; they move behind gauze; they are tyred in velvet; their voices are muted; their movement is in slow motion. Whatever is new and vulgar and foolish contrives to lose itself in the denser patches of mist. But all the glimpses of ancient loveliness are there, perfectly framed and lighted: round every corner somebody is whispering a line or two of Chaucer. And on these mornings, the river is simply not true: there is no geography, nothing but pure poetry, down there; the water has gone and shapes out of an adventurous dream drift by on a tide of gilded and silvered air. Such is the City on one of these mornings, a place in a Gothic fairy tale, a mirage, a vision.

(From "They Walk in the City" by J. B. Priestley. Abridged)

XVII. Role-playing:


A group of guides suggests possible sightseeing routes about London (Moscow) to their office director. Each one speaks in favour of his/her suggestion trying to convince both the director and the guides that the route is the best. In the end the participants of the talk choose the most appropriate route.

XVIII. Describe (in writing) a sight or a view that once struck yon as picturesque, beautiful or unusual.


The best essays may be read in class and then placed in a wall paper, a special bulletin issued by the literary club, etc.

Note: The text above may serve as a perfect example of such description

XIX. Film: "Mr. Brown's Holiday." Film segment 3 "In Dear Old England" (Broadstairs). a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.


STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH (III)

The central idea of a paragraph is built up with the help of larger units than key-words, that is with the help of socalled topic sentences.

Topic sentence is a summarizing sentence of a paragraph. Topic sentences can also be used to tie up a group of paragraphs together holding the unity of a passage.

Generally the topic sentence comes first in a paragraph. It helps to understand the text and begin writing, е.g. "Numerous artificial languages have been carefully constructed and some of them are still in limited use. In 1887, an artificial language, Esperanto, was created. Esperanto has little grammar and drew its vocabulary from all the European languages..." (From "One Language for the World" by M. Pei). The writer proceeds from a general statement to particulars.

Occasionally the topic sentence comes last, when the writer wishes first to prepare his reader for the general idea or a conclusion, е.g. "You're like two friends who want to take their holiday together, but one of them wants to climb Greenland's snowy mountains while the other wants to fish off India's coral strand. Obviously it's not going to work" (From "The Razor's Edge" by W. S. Maugham).

Assignments:

1. Read the passage "Introducing London" and mark paragraphs with topic sentences. What central idea do they summarize? Where are they placed within the paragraph?

2. Find the topic sentence that holds the unity of the whole passage.

3. Mark the key-words that emphasize the main points of the information about London.

4. Paragraph 8 includes the key-word "parks", develop it into a topic sentence summarizing the central idea of the paragraph.

5. Write a paragraph describing the picture on pp. 114-115. Try your hand at various topic sentences that help to hold the unity of the paragraph.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to the text "Some More Glimpses of London."

2. Listen to the dialogue "Sightseeing". Repeat the text in the intervals and record your versions.

Compare your version with the original and correct your pronunciation mistakes if any.

3. Translate the sentences into English, check them with the key.

4. Listen to the test "Behind the Scenes" or some other text on the topic "London". Discuss the text in class.

5. Listen to the "Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge". Mark the stresses and tunes. Learn it by heart.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

1. Why is the clock on the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament called "Big Ben"?

2. What is the "Cenotaph"? Where can it be found? What is the origin of the name?

3. The security of the Tower of London is mainly the responsibility of the Yeomen Warders or "Beefeaters" as they are popularly called. What is the origin of the word "Beefeater"?

4. What is the "Union Jack"? What does it look like? What is its origin? Where and when can it be seen?

5. Name five of the numerous bridges which cross the Thames. Show them on the map of London and comment on their names.

6. What is "Soho"? Where is it situated? What are its peculiar features?
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